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Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mameluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey.
- February 3 - Capture of Cairo by the Turks
- First contact of organized western merchants with China.
- August 15 - Portuguese merchant Fernao Pires de Andrade met Chinese officials through a interpreter at Pearl River estuary and landed at Hong Kong.
- October 31 - Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church.
- Conquest of Riazan by Grand Prince Vasili III of Muscovy
- Selim I, Sultan of Turkey conquers Palestine.