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Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland
- February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15, skipping over 10 days. Other countries follow at various later dates.
- November 28 - In Stratford-upon-Avon, 18 year-old William Shakespeare and 26 year-old Anne Hathaway pay a 40-pound bond for their marriage license (Shakespeare would later become one of the greatest playwrights in history).
- Tibet, Foundation of Kumbum
- China, Matteo Ricci s.j. is allowed to enter in China
- Incident of Honnoji in Kyoto, Japan