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Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated.
- December 16 - Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
- End of the first period of republican government called the Commonwealth of England. The Rump Parliament was disbanded by Oliver Cromwell. See also the Long Parliament and Southamptonshire.
- Marcello Malpighi becomes a doctor of medicine.
- Stephen Bachiler returns to England.