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Events and Trends
- Nationalistic independence movements helped reshape the world during this decade:
- The United Provinces of Central America were formed in 1823.
- Emperor Francis II (Austria)
- Chancellor Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (Austria)
- King Louis XVIII (France)
- King Charles X (France)
- Pope Pius VII
- Pope Leo XII
- Emperor Alexander I (Russia)
- Emperor Nicholas I (Russia)
- King George IV (United Kingdom)
- President James Monroe (United States)
- President John Quincy Adams (United States)