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Events and Trends
- Crimean war (1854 - 1856) fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea.
- Emperor Franz Josef (Austria-Hungary)
- Emperor Napoleon III (France)
- Pope Pius IX
- Emperor Nicholas I (Russia)
- Emperor Alexander II (Russia)
- Queen Victoria, (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Lord John Russell (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister |Lord Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Lord Palmerston (United Kingdom)
- President Millard Fillmore (United States)
- President Franklin Pierce (United States)
- President James Buchanan (United States)