From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Antarctica is a continent surrounding the Earth's South Pole. It is the coldest place on earth and is almost entirely covered by ice. It is not to be confused with the arctic, which is located near the Earth's North Pole. Antarctica was discovered in late January 1820. For more details see the article on the History of Antarctica.
Antarctica has no government or centralized authority. It has never been formally colonized, though in the 20th century several nations, often those within close proximity to the continent, made territorial claims. These claims have little practical relevance but continue be observed by cartographers.
Antarctic Treaty defers these claims and most other nations do not recognize them. No other nations have made claims themselves, although the United States and Russia assert the right to do so. No formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west.
Typical for Antarctica are gigantic table-top icebergs. The continent is surrounded by a large pack ice zone, in which one of the most remarkable ecosystems of the planet developed, based on the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. It is the food of whales, penguins, fish, sealss and many birds.
(photo Uwe Kils) from )
|Satellite image - Large version|
- Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, South Pole (U.S. Antarctic Program)
- Casey, Vincennes Bay (Australian Antarctic Division)
- Davis Princess Elizabeth Land (Australian Antarctic Division)
- Halley Research Station (75°35' S, 26°34' W) British Antarctic Survey
- Rothera Research Station (67°34' S, 68°08' W) British Antarctic Survey
- McMurdo Station, Ross Island (U.S.)
- Macquarie Island (Australian Antarctic Division)
- Mawson, Mac Robertson Land (Australian Antarctic Division)
- Scott Base, Ross Island (New Zealand)
- Rothera (67S, 68W) British Antarctic Survey
- SANAE (South African National Antarctic Expeditions), on the Fimbul Coastal Ice Shelf in Queen Maud Land
- Bernardo O'Higgins Station, Antarctic Peninsula, Chilean Army.
- Eduardo Frei Montalva Station and Villa Las Estrellas, King George Island, Chilean Air Force.
Tabletop icebergs in Antarctica