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  Wikipedia: Caliphate

Wikipedia: Caliphate
Caliphate
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Caliph (خليفة) was the title taken by Abu Bakr, the father-in-law of Muhammad, when he succeeded him as leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam, in 632.

The holder of this title claims rulership over all Muslims. The Caliph combines four roles that are often distinct in the Western world. These roles are:

  1. Spritual leader of Muslims, the one who guides Muslims in new matters,
  2. Religious leader of Muslims, the one who enforces Sharia,
  3. Political leader of Muslims, the one who conducts relations with other states and administers the government,
  4. Military leader of Muslims, the one who orders and conducts military affairs, in particular those regarding the conflict between dar al-Islam and dar al-Harb.
In the Catholic Church, the first two are combined in the office of the Pope. The last two are combined in military dictatorships. Islam may be unique in being the only system to combine all four.

Following the conflict between the Fatimids and the Abbasids, other Muslim rulers began to claim the caliphal title. With defeat of these peripheral caliphates, the caliphate of the Ottomans began increasingly to be considered to be undisputed primary caliphate. Thus, by eve of the First World War the Ottoman caliphate represented the largest and most powerful independent Islamicate political entity.

The English word "Caliph" comes from Arabic via French, which got it from Latin (calīpha), which romanized the Arabic word, Khalīfa (probably خليفة), literally "Successor of the Prophet." Khalīfa originates from the verb khalafa, meaning "to succeed" or "to be behind." Some Orientalists wrote it as Khalîf. Some movements in modern Islamic philosophy justify religious leadership via khalifa, meaning roughly "to steward" or "to protect the same things as God," and propose this to renew the Caliphate.

Famous caliphs

The Four Righteously Guided Caliphs:

  1. Abu Bakr
  2. Umar ibn al-Khattab
  3. Uthman ibn Affan
  4. Ali Ben Abu Talib

Other caliphs, some self-proclaimed:

Dynasties

The first four caliphs were followed by:

  1. The Umayyad dynasty in Damascus (661-750), followed by the
  2. The Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad (750-1258)
  3. After the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, the Mamluk rulers of Egypt set up an Abbasid as a puppet Caliph in Cairo. These Caliphs lasted until the Ottoman conquest in 1517
  4. In the 19th Century, the Ottoman Sultans began to claim the title of Caliph, saying that it had been passed from the last Abbasid to Sultan Selim I, although there is no evidence of this. After the abolition of the Sultanate in 1922, the Caliphate continued for two more years under the Ottoman Prince Abdul Mejid II, before being finally abolished at the behest of Kemel by the Grand National Assembly in 1924.

Other regional dynasties set themselves up as Caliphs:

Current

Currently, there is a movement in many countries to rise a new caliphate in The Modern Moslem World. Among these movements is The Hizb'ut'Tahrir.

International terrorist group Al-Qaida plans to overthrow other governments in the Middle East with the help of allied movements so that it would establish a Wahhabi caliphate across the Muslim world. Jemaah Islamiah leader Rahman Ismauddin, better known as Hambali, wanted to establish his own caliphate across Southeast Asia. It would have composed of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Brunei, Cambodia, and Thailand.


  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona