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  Wikipedia: Evangelicalism

Wikipedia: Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Definition

Lexical definition

Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus Christ is the savior. To be evangelical would then mean to be merely Christian - that is, founded upon, motivated by, acting in agreement with, or in some other way identified with το ευαγγελιον : the good news, the Gospel of salvation given to Man in Jesus Christ.

In common usage

However, this most general definition of Evangelicalism is hardly ever the intended meaning in religious discourse. When it is granted by Catholics, for example, that only Protestantism is Evangelicalism, it is not in the lexical sense that this concession is made, any more than the appellation of "Baptist" concedes that only the Baptists have legitimate baptism. Rather, their teaching is called Evangelicalism because it is upon the issue of the preaching of the Gospel, the evangel, that the critics of the Pope and of the Catholic magisterium wished to differentiate themselves. A Catholic layman may even insist on being Catholic, rather than being christian in a sense identical to being evangelical (just as an Evangelical may deny being catholic or orthodox) - so much have some terms become identified with one side or the other, in controversies which divide Christians, especially since the Reformation.

Evangelical was the originally preferred term of self-description for the teachings and culture which arose in Protestant churches ("the Evangelical churches") of the Reformation. This relatively older Evangelicalism was, for a while, identical with Protestantism. The word is still used in this sense in Europe, and in some Lutheran churches such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.

Modern evangelicalism also draws roots from the Wesleyan Revival. Possibly Charles Wesley, brother of the more famous John Wesley, has had as much influence through his hymns, which crossed denominational lines through congregational singing, and became a part of the theology of many Christians. Another hymn writer whose influence still lasts is John Newton author of Amazing Grace.

In the 19th century, "Evangelicalism" was the revivalism and religiously motivated social activism which typified the Second Great Awakening. In more recent times, the term has been widely used to differentiate conservative Protestantism from liberal Protestantism.

The modern Evangelical movement has come to be identified with those groups within churches that place primary emphasis on biblical instruction, i.e. the sermon and activism motivated by preaching and biblical teaching. This is in contrast with a view of Christian ministry focussed on the sacraments or liturgy of the Church. Another key characteristic of Evangelical Protestantism is the importance given to a personal belief and relationship with God based on the revelation of the Bible. In most of the English-speaking world, conservative, Trinitarian, Protestant Christians are the group most readily identified as Evangelical and their religious, social and political attitudes are called Evangelicalism.

Moving to a future definition

This definition is increasingly considered by many to be inadequate, as Evangelicalism has surpassed the boundaries of a church or single institution. An alternative way of differentiating Evangelicalism is to describe the religious and social temperament itself, rather than any definite group. As such, self-described Evangelicals (or so-called "evangelicals" identified as such by others, but not self-identified) are found in the Roman Catholic church and in Eastern Orthodoxy: implying a sense of common identity crossing traditional boundaries, pointing to a similar attitude, beyond any official definition, about what it means to be a Christian.

Characteristics (based on the most common definition)

Commentators and historians have described four distinctive characteristics of evangelicals (Bebbington):

  1. An emphasis on the conversion experience. The conversion is also called being 'saved' or the "new birth" or being "born again" after John 3:3 (Evangelicals are sometimes referred to as "born-again Christians" because of this emphasis.)
  2. The use of the Bible as the primary source of God's revelation to man, and therefore the ultimate religious authority.
  3. Encourage evangelism, that is the act of sharing one's beliefs in the gospel with others in order to convince them to convert, either in organized missionary work or through personal evangelism.
  4. A central focus on Christ's redeeming work on the cross, especially as the means for salvation and the forgiveness of sins.

Evangelicals generally believe the Bible to be reliable and the ultimate authority in matters of faith and practice and subscribe to the doctrines of sola scriptura and sola fide. They believe in the historicity of the miracles of Jesus Christ and his literal virgin birth, crucifixion, resurrection and Second Coming. Generally, they are conservative in their social outlook, believing, for example, that homosexual behavior is sinful and that human life begins at conception.

Active involvement in secular society is a characeristic of modern evangelicals, who see the danger of withdrawal on the one hand, and accommodation, on the other, and try to take the middle course, that of penetrating society with the gospel. As such, evangelicals are highly active in social causes. Historically, Evangelicals have often been in the forefront of movements such as abolition, prison reform, orphanage and hospital building, and founding educational institutions. Today this activism is also expressed in the pro-life movement, pro-family initiatives, anti-racism, literacy training, adoption agencies, food banks, and day-care centers for children. Within US mainline denominations there is often a dichotomy, with the liberal wing of the church actively lobbying in Washington for more government welfare programs, while the evangelical wing is teaching people to read, running food banks, and buiding houses for the poor with Habitat for Humanity

Evangelicals can be found in a wide variety of Christian traditions and locations, although they are most commonly Protestant. Many fundamentalists can also be defined as evangelicals, although not all evangelicals are fundamentalists, because they may not hold to a literal interpretation of the Bible. Some Evangelicals also identify with the Pentecostal movement.

A 1992 survey (Green) showed that in the United States and Canada evangelicals make up both the largest and the most active group of Christians (surpassing both Roman Catholics and non-Evangelical Protestant groups).

On a worldwide scale evangelical Churches are (together with Pentecostals) the most rapidly growing Christian churches.

Other information

Famous evangelicals include:

Historical:

Jonathan Edwards - preacher in the First Great Awakening
Dwight L. Moody
Billy Sunday
John Wesley
Charles Wesley
George Whitefield
John Newton (author of Amazing Grace)
Charles Grandison Finney - A preacher in the Second Great Awakening
C. S._Lewis, while actually a high-church Anglican who did not identify himself with Evangelicals, he was (and his books are still) nontheless a driving force within modern Evangelicalism.

Contemporary:
Tony Campolo
Charles Colson
James Dobson
Billy Graham
Franklin Graham, Billy's son
Carl F. H. Henry
Francis Schaeffer
Chuck Swindoll

Evangelical Para-church Organizations

Many Evangelical Christians share an understanding of cross denominational collaberation in mission and evangelism, while at the same time eschewing large institutional church structures. As a result of this emerged (and is emerging) a plethora of church-based and church-related organisations, often founded with a direct and limited purpose in mind which are sometimes called para-churches or para church organisations.

Some examples of larger, international organisations of this kind, are:

World Vision Worldwide relief agency
Prison Fellowship visits and ministers to prisoners worldwide
International Fellowship of Evangelical Students association of Christian student movements worldwide
Operation Mobilisation international mission agency with particular focus on Islamic people groups
Youth with a Mission international mission agency with particular focus on youth and the World's poor and disadvantaged.
Laubach Literacy Each one teach one a literacy program instituted by Dr. Frank Laubach that has taught 60 million people to read.

Parachurch organizations well-known in the United States, are:

Promise Keepers A renewal movement for men
Samaritan's Purse Interdemoninational disaster relief aid
Heifer Project International Agricultural mission help for third world countries
Habitat for Humanity Helping poor families build homes; President Jimmy Carter has worked extensively with them.
Focus on the Family Resources for Christian families, singles, and various age groups, professions

References

Bebbington, David. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s. Unwin Hyman (London), 1989.
Green, John, Guth, James, et.al. Akron Survey of Religion and Politics in America 1992. As quoted in Noll, Mark. Scandal of the Evangelical Mind. Eerdmans, 1994.
National Association of Evangelicals web page : http://www.nae.net
Institute for the Study of American Evangelicalism web page: http://www.wheaton.edu/isae/

See also

External Link

World Evangelical Alliance (Has a list of evangelical organizations from many nations.)


  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
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