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Immature Californian Gull.
|† see also: Tern|
Gulls are seabirds in the family Laridae and subfamily Lari. They are closely related to the terns, and more distantly to the waders, auks and skimmers.
Most gulls belong to the large genus Larus.
They are in general medium to large birds, typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.
Most gulls, particularly Larus species, are ground nesting omnivores, which will take live food or scavenge opportunistically.
Apart from the kittiwakes, gulls are typically coastal or inland species, rarely venturing far out to sea. The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls.
The taxonomy of the Herring Gull is particularly complicated.
The species are:
- Suborder Charadrii: The waders.
- Suborder Lari
- Family: Laridae
- Dolphin Gull, Larus scoresbii
- Pacific Gull, Larus pacificus
- Belcher's Gull, Larus belcheri
- Olrog's Gull, Larus atlanticus
- Black-tailed Gull, Larus crassirostris
- Grey Gull, Larus modestus
- Heermann's Gull, Larus heermanni
- White-eyed Gull, Larus leucophthalmus
- Sooty Gull, Larus hemprichii
- Common Gull or Mew Gull, Larus canus
- Audouin's Gull, Larus audouinii
- Ring-billed Gull, Larus delawarensis
- California Gull, Larus californicus
- Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus
- Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus
- Glaucous-winged Gull, Larus glaucescens
- Western Gull, Larus occidentalis
- Yellow-footed Gull, Larus livens
- Glaucous Gull, Larus hyperboreus
- Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides
- Thayer's Gull, Larus thayeri
- Herring Gull, Larus argentatus
- American Herring Gull, Larus smithsonianus
- Yellow-legged Gull, Larus michahelis
- Caspian Gull, Larus cachinnans
- East Siberian Herring Gull, Larus vegae
- Armenian Gull, Larus armenicus
- Slaty-backed Gull, Larus schistisagus
- Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus
- Great Black-headed Gull, Larus ichthyaetus
- Brown-headed Gull, Larus brunnicephalus
- Grey-headed Gull, Larus cirrocephalus
- Hartlaub's Gull, Larus hartlaubii
- Silver Gull, Larus novaehollandiae
- Red-billed Gull, Larus scopulinus
- Black-billed Gull, Larus bulleri
- Brown-hooded Gull, Larus maculipennis
- Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus
- Slender-billed Gull Larus genei
- Bonaparte's Gull, Larus philadelphia
- Saunders' Gull, Larus saundersi
- Andean Gull, Larus serranus
- Mediterranean Gull, Larus melanocephalus
- Relict Gull, Larus relictus
- Lava Gull, Larus fuliginosus
- Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla
- Franklin's Gull, Larus pipixcan
- Little Gull, Larus minutus
- Kittiwake or Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
- Red-legged Kittiwake Rissa brevirostris
- Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea
- Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea
- Sabine's Gull, Xema sabini
- Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus furcatus
- Family Sternidae: terns
- Family Stercorariidae: skuas
- Family Rhynchopidae: skimmers
- Family: Laridae
- Suborder Alcae: auks.