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Julius Kambarage Nyerere (July 19 1922- October 14, 1999) was President of Tanzania, and previously Tanganyika, until his retirement. He was known by the Swahili name Mwalimu or 'teacher'. When in power, Nyerere implemented a socialist economic program, establishing close ties with China, and also introduced a policy of collectivization in the country's agricultural system, known as ujamaa.
Nyerere was leader of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) which merged with the Afro-Shirazi Party of Zanzibar to for the Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) or People's Revolutionary Movement.