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Wikipedia: Saint
Saint
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

In the New Testament, the term saint (`αγιος) is used to describe any Christian believer, alive or dead, no matter what their importance in terms of church history. Many of Paul's letters are addressed 'to all the saints...' and sometimes '...along with the elders'. For example Ephesians opens with "...to the saints which are at Ephesus...". The term developed in later centuries, and took on much larger connotations. In the modern, secular usage it refers to simply a perfect or extremely pious person.

Formal definition

In the Catholic and Orthodox churches, a saint is more particularly a person who has been canonised (officially recognized) by a Christian church. This can only take place after their death; in Roman Catholicism, this is because even the holiest person alive may fall into mortal sin at the last moment; in Eastern Orthodoxy, it is more to avoid haste and allow ample time for sober reflection on the person's life. In many Protestant churches, the word is used more generally to refer to anyone who is a Christian. The remainder of this article will focus on "saints" as the term is used by Catholic and Orthodox churches.

Liturgical function

Saints are thought to be able to act as intermediaries between God and people by praying to God on behalf of specific people, sometimes at the request of believers. Though some individuals are widely held to be saints in their lifetimes, they are not recognized so by churches. The word "saint" comes from the Latin word sanctus which means "holy." A few English-speaking Eastern Orthodox believers prefer to use the English word "holy" rather than "saint", or use the two terms interchangeably, and so will refer to St. Peter as "Holy Peter" or "the Holy Apostle Peter" for example. In most other languages, the word for "saint" would be more literally translated "holy", such as `αγιος in Greek, santo in Spanish, saint or sacre in French, etc. A related word in English is "sanctify", which means "to make holy". So in the broad sense of the word, "saint" can mean all those who have been sanctified, or all believers. The narrower and more common sense of the word today is those whom the Church has widely recognized as having been sanctified, as demonstrated in a number of different ways.

This practice explains why, in Catholic and Orthodox Christianity, the names of angels are usually preceded by the word 'saint' despite their lack of a human existence - Saint Michael the Archangel never had to be canonized; the name means 'Holy Michael'.

Recognition of particular saints

The Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Churches are the churches in which the veneration of saints is most common. They do not, however, honor all the same individuals as saints. Some of the reasons for differences are historical, rooted in the Great Schism. Others are local. In the Early Christian Church, treatment as a saint depended on local and regional recognition of an individual's sanctity and reputation of miracles. Most saints had only local devotional cults, and only the most famous - the apostles, the companions of Christ, persons mentioned in Scripture, and very few international celebrities - developed wide-spread devotion. The ancient practice is still often the case within the Orthodox Churches.

The Western church developed its institutionalized system of canonization shortly before the Great Schism, and so a highly organized calendar of observation of saints' days is seen in Roman Catholicism and a few of its break-away churches (the Anglican communion has partially preserved the idea of an organized attention to the saints). The Orthodox churches also have calendars of saints' days, in some cases honoring saints on the same day as in the West. However, they often have more variation in which saints are remembered, since the calendars are largely determined by the different patriarchs, metropolitans and archbishops.

Even inside the Roman Catholic church, there are different extents of devotion. Some saints' days are observed only in a single diocese {I don't know of any actual examples of that, but it's canonically possible}. Many are honored as saints in their own home region, and others are honored as saints only by a particular religious order. For instance, each monastic order honors many individuals who were members of that order with special saint-days who are ignored in the broader structure of parishes. In many Eastern Orthodox parishes, it is the custom to remember the names of members of that parish as part of the liturgical prayers long after those members have died.

Related customs

A related practice is the veneration of relics. A relic is a part of a saint's body, often a small bone fragment. Relics are venerated or honored much in the same way that icons are venerated. The practice began during the early centuries when Christians had to hide in catacombs to escape persecution. In those circumstances, they were literally praying in the company of dead Christians. That reality, combined with belief in the resurrection of Jesus Christ, the eventual resurrection of all believers, and the witnessing of miracles connected with relics, led to the current practice.

In both Western and Eastern churches, members often are given a "saint's name" or the name of a patron saint at the time of their chrismation (Eastern) or baptism (Western). This saint is given to that person to pray for them and intercede for them, and that person will give special honor to and pray to that saint. The date that the saint is honored in the church also becomes the new member's "saint's day" or "name day." Sometimes a person will become known in the church exclusively by their saint's name; then this name may be called the person's "ecclesial name", since it's the name by which they are known in the church.

In spite of this difference, the Western and Eastern churches do not hold a position on the (in)validity of the other's lists and calendars of saints, and do not consider the other's lists as relevant.

Historicity

A number of people are venerated as saints who may never have actually existed; the polite term for this is 'ahistorical.' Sorting out exactly which saints are historical is difficult, because of the larger difficulty of proving a negative: the absence of independent records of a saint's existence doesn't prove she or he never existed, because there are no specific records of the existence of many people who lived before the 20th century. The hagiographical work of the Bollandists forms a major part of the historiography of named saints.

Related to this, some pre-Christian deities (specially in Rome's area) are alleged to have been adopted as saints. Some cults seem to have been Christianized fairly directly--for example, it is often asserted without evidence that Saint Brigid was a goddess before Christianity ever reached Ireland. However, the basis for the claim is a vague similarity of names. It is not unlikely that older beliefs and legends related to pre-Christian gods have been grafted onto the lives of humans who are venerated as saints. Another possibility is that some people were named after pagan gods, converted to Christianity, and were later recognized by the Church as saints.

The converse of this is the idea that not all saints are known to any church. For example, anyone who died for his or her Christian belief is counted as a saint, whether or not anyone knows about the martyrdom. The doctrine is that God creates saints, and the church merely recognizes them: even if no church knows of a martyr, God does. For this reason, both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox celebrate All Saints' Day in commemoration of the "unknown" saints.

The concept of the bodhisattva in some schools of Buddhism is in some respects comparable to that of the Christian saint.


Shortened form: It is claimed by some style and usage manuals that the correct shortened form of "Saint" in English is "St" without the dot, period or full stop, because it is a contraction not an abbreviation and includes the last letter of the word. Thus, according to this view, St Bernard is correct and St. Bernard is wrong. However, nearly all published books, in both British and American English, use "St.", with the dot.
See also: For the pioneering Australian punk band, see The Saints. There are also two actresses by the name of Saint: Eva Marie Saint and Sylvia Saint. Roger Moore was Simon Templar or The Saint in the 1960s TV series of the same name.


Saints is also the name of a commune in the Yonne département in France.


  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 
Modified by Geona